Geoff Smith is Professor of Pharmaceutical Process Analytical Technology in the Leicester School of Pharmacy at De Montfort University (UK). His research group focuses on pharmaceutical applications for impedance, dielectric and terahertz spectroscopies alongside optical techniques such as laser speckle and optical flow. He is responsible for the development of through-vial impedance spectroscopy (TVIS) as a PAT tool for monitoring phase behaviour (ice formation and eutectic formation), ice interface temperatures, primary drying rates and end points. This development marks the first time that impedance spectroscopy has been used to characterise materials within conventional glass freeze-drying vials, without having to insert the electrodes into the product (i.e. the solution under-going freeze-drying). This feature of the technology sets it apart from other in-process impedance measurement systems, in which a bulky electrode assembly is inserted into the solution being freeze-dried.