Z-FDM : An electrical impedance-enabled freeze-drying microscope
figureposted on 17.04.2019 by Geoff Smith
Figures are generally photos, graphs and static images that would be represented in traditional pdf publications.
DMU LyoGroup (Leicester, UK) in collaboration with Biopharma Process Systems Ltd (Winchester) have re-designed the Lyostat freeze-drying microscope stage to incorporate a micro-electrode system for the simultaneous visualisation of the sample (through the microscope objective) and the measurement of the electrical impedance of the sample (across excitation frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz).
The enhanced system (Z-FDM) generates a more objective assessment of the onset of collapse while providing other parameters such as drying rate and ice solidification onset and end point.