Application of a novel impedance-based freeze drying microscopy for formulation development. Podium & Poster presentation at ISL-FD 9th International Conference 2-6th September, 2019, Ghent, Belgium

This work demonstrates the application in freeze-drying of a single analytical instrument (Z-FDM) combining impedance (Z) spectroscopy with freeze-drying microscopy (FDM). The electrical impedance spectrum and visual appearance of a 5% sucrose solution was analysed with an interdigitated micro-electrode array placed on a freeze-drying microscope stage. The critical process parameters of ice growth, sublimation drying rate and end-point were studied using Z-FDM technique in addition to observing the collapse temperature. This early study indicates that by using this combined approach it is possible to obtain further information that can be obtained currently by two separate instruments.