Z-FDM : An electrical impedance-enabled freeze-drying microscope

2019-04-17T13:53:13Z (GMT) by Geoff Smith
DMU LyoGroup (Leicester, UK) in collaboration with Biopharma Process Systems Ltd (Winchester) have re-designed the Lyostat freeze-drying microscope stage to incorporate a micro-electrode system for the simultaneous visualisation of the sample (through the microscope objective) and the measurement of the electrical impedance of the sample (across excitation frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz).
The enhanced system (Z-FDM) generates a more objective assessment of the onset of collapse while providing other parameters such as drying rate and ice solidification onset and end point.