Smith (2018) Podium presentation at "Freeze Drying of Pharmaceutical and Biologicals", Sept 18 - 21, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Podium presentation by Geoff Smith at the conference "Freeze-Drying of Pharmaceuticals and Biologics" in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, Sept 18-21 2018.
The presentation describes the use of a dual-electrode, through vial impedance spectroscopy (TVIS) method for the determination of drying rates and the prediction of ice interface and ice base temperatures from which the single vial heat transfer coefficient was calculated.